Einsien’s speed of light limit, smashed.!

“No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.” Albert Einstein.

Yes they may sound a little incredible but it is true.

Researchers at the Delft University of technology, have discovered quantum entanglement. Something which relativity says is not possible, due to the cosmic speed limit imposed by Albert.

Two electrons 1.5km away were found to “communicate” in less than the speed of light.

http://phys.org/news/2015-10-historic-delft-einstein-god-dice.html

 

Could this be an end to science dominated by relativity ? I sure hope so.

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Pluto’s Atmosphere and plasma tail. NEW FINDINGS AMAZE

Well here is some data and analysis from New Horizons fly by.

PIA19948-NH-Pluto-Norgay-Hillary-Mountains-2050714

Many  surprises have already been revealed in the data thus far released from NASA’s New Horizons mission. Today, physicist Eugene Bagashov discusses what we have learned thus far about Pluto’s atmosphere and the larger Plutonian environment.

New Horizons has discovered a region of cold, dense ionized gas tens of thousands of miles beyond Pluto — the planet’s atmosphere being stripped away by the solar wind and lost to space. Beginning an hour and half after closest approach, the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument observed a cavity in the solar wind — the outflow of electrically charged particles from the Sun — between 48,000 miles (77,000 km) and 68,000 miles (109,000 km) downstream of Pluto. SWAP data revealed this cavity to be populated with nitrogen ions forming a “plasma tail” of undetermined structure and length extending behind the planet.

Also other interesting data on other planets atmospheres including our own earth.

Well worth a watch.

Thanks To Thunderbolts

Tiny magnets mimic steam, water and ice

Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) announced they have created a synthetic material with magnetic properties capable of changing states – just as water changes from solid ice to liquid or steam – with temperature change.

nano magnets

Honeycomb of nanomagnets

The magnets are only 63 nanometres long and shaped roughly like grains of rice. The researchers used a highly advanced technique to place 1 billion of these tiny grains on a flat substrate to form a large-scale honeycomb pattern. The nanomagnets covered a total area of five by five millimetres.

Thanks to a special measuring technique, the scientists initially studied the collective magnetic behaviour of their metamaterial at room temperature. Here there was no order in the magnetic orientation: the magnetic north and south poles pointed randomly in one direction or another.

When the researchers cooled the metamaterial gradually and constantly, however, they reached a point where a higher order appeared: the tiny magnets now noticed each other more than before. As the temperature fell further, there was another change towards an even higher order, in which the magnetic arrangement appeared almost frozen. The long-range order of water molecules increases in a similar way at the moment when water freezes into ice. “We were fascinated by the fact that our synthetic material displayed this everyday phenomenon of a phase transition,” says Heyderman

Credits

Nanomagnets and water properties

New Material Made From 1 Billion Tiny Magnets Changes States Like Water

Tiny magnets mimic steam, water and ice

Hans Alfven and his contributions to Modern Astronomy

If you Wikipedia Hans Alfven this is what comes up

“Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (Swedish: [alˈveːn]; 30 May 1908 – 2 April 1995) was a Swedish electrical engineer, plasma physicist and winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). He described the class of MHD waves now known as Alfvén waves. He was originally trained as an electrical power engineer and later moved to research and teaching in the fields of plasma physics and electrical engineering. Alfvén made many contributions to plasma physics, including theories describing the behavior of aurorae, the Van Allen radiation belts, the effect of magnetic storms on the Earth’s magnetic field, the terrestrial magnetosphere, and the dynamics of plasmas in the Milky Way galaxy.”

Hans

If you dig a little deeper you will find

“Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (Swedish: [alˈveːn]; 30 May 1908 – 2 April 1995) was a Swedish electrical engineer, plasma physicist and winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). He described the class of MHD waves now known as Alfvén waves. He was originally trained as an electrical power engineer and later moved to research and teaching in the fields of plasma physics and electrical engineering. Alfvén made many contributions to plasma physics, including theories describing the behavior of aurorae, the Van Allen radiation belts, the effect of magnetic storms on the Earth’s magnetic field, the terrestrial magnetosphere, and the dynamics of plasmas in the Milky Way galaxy.”

Hasalfv

“Applications of Alfvén’s research in space science include:

Van Allen radiation belt theory
Reduction of the Earth’s magnetic field during magnetic storms
Magnetosphere (protective plasma covering the earth)
Formation of comet tails
Formation of the solar system
Dynamics of plasmas in the galaxy
Fundamental nature of the universe”

From here..

Hans Alfven in a Plasma universe

Hans Alfven did a lot of work with plasmas in the laboratory and recognised some of the same structures in space. This lead him to an understanding of workings within the universe that conflicted with mainstream Astronomy.

He was a critic against the Big Bang. ” The problem with the Big Bang was that astrophysicists tried to extrapolate the origin of the universe from mathematical theories developed on the blackboard. The Big Bang was a myth devised to explain creation, according to Alfvén”

“Alfvén’s work was disputed for many years by the senior scientist in space physics, the British-American geophysicist Sydney Chapman. Alfvén’s disagreements with Chapman stemmed in large part from trouble with the peer review system. Alfvén rarely benefited from the acceptance generally afforded senior scientists in scientific journals. He once submitted a paper on the theory of magnetic storms and auroras to the American journal Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, and his paper was rejected on the ground that it did not agree with the theoretical calculations of conventional physics of the time.”

Some quotes of his include

“I have always believed that astrophysics should be the extrapolation of laboratory physics, that we must begin from the present universe and work our way backward to progressively more remote and uncertain epochs.”

“We should remember that there was once a discipline called natural philosophy. Unfortunately, this discipline seems not to exist today. It has been renamed science, but science of today is in danger of losing much of the natural philosophy aspect.”

“Most people today still believe, perhaps unconsciously, in the heliocentric universe every newspaper in the land has a section on astrology, yet few have anything at all on astronomy.”

“We have to learn again that science without contact with experiments is an enterprise which is likely to go completely astray into imaginary conjecture.”
Hannes Alfven

His Honours include..

Honours
Alfvén was also honoured with the following:
1947 Member, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
1947 Member, Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (resigned 1980).
1958 Foreign Member, Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Akademia NAUK).
1962 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston.
1965 Honorary DSc, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
1966 Foreign Member, National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC.
1967 Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society.
1970 Nobel Prize in Physics.
1971 Lomonosov Medal of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
1971 Gold Medal of the Franklin Institute.
1972 Foreign Member, Indian National Science Academy.
1974 Yugoslavian Academy of Science.
1977 Honorary DSc, University of Oxford.
1980 Foreign Member, Royal Society, London.
1985 Honorary PhD, Stockholm University.
1987 Bowie Gold Medal, American Geophysical Union.
1994 Dirac Medal, University of New South Wales and the Australian Institute of Physics.”

credits

http://www.plasma-universe.com/Hannes_Alfv%C3%A9n

Wiki

Maybe the laws of physics are wrong ? Nasa’s successful testing of an Electromagnetic drive system

A group at NASA’s Johnson Space Center has successfully tested an electromagnetic (EM) propulsion drive in a vacuum – a major breakthrough for a multi-year international effort comprising several competing research teams.

A2-350x140

Thrust measurements of the EM Drive defy classical physics’ expectations that such a closed (microwave) cavity should be unusable for space propulsion because of the law of conservation of momentum.

Nasa space drive

According to classical physics, the EMDrive should be impossible because it seems to violate the law of conservation of momentum.

The law states that the momentum of a system is constant if there are no external forces acting on the system – which is why propellant is required in traditional rockets.


A controversial design for a new, advanced type of space travel received a boost as German scientists confirmed that it does in fact work.

The EMDrive propulsion system would permit travel at speeds until now only seen in science fiction.

When the concept was first proposed it was considered impossible because it went against the laws of physics.

But subsequent tests – further backed up by this announcement – have shown that the idea could revolutionise space travel.

The system is based on electromagnetic drive, or EMDrive, which converts electrical energy into thrust without the need for rocket fuel.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3177449/Nasa-s-impossible-fuel-free-thrusters-work-German-scientists-confirm-viability-super-fast-space-travel-slash-journey-moon-4-HOURS.html#ixzz3j9oxYx4K
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Whats up with the Sun ? It is Electric

The Sun is an active electrical star.

The sounds of the Sun AUDIO from

Solar flares and science

The active sun with sunspots, coronal loops and solar flaring visible.
The active sun with sunspots, coronal loops and solar flaring visible.

Sunspots It happens down by the surface probably beneath. But what it causes on the surface is quite astonishing. Sunspots are the visible counterparts of magnetic flux tubes.  Sunspots come in pairs with opposite magnetic polarity. From cycle to cycle, the polarities of leading and trailing (with respect to the solar rotation) sunspots change from north/south to south/north and back. Sunspots usually appear in groups. In 2001, observations from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) using sound waves traveling below the Sun’s photosphere (local helioseismology) were used to develop a three-dimensional image of the internal structure below sunspots; these observations show that there is a powerful downdraft underneath each sunspot, forming a rotating vortex that concentrates the magnetic field.

Sunspot to plasma loop
Sunspot to plasma loop

The sunspots often form plasma loops, which are also called Coronal loops. The process feeds the corona with chromospheric plasma and powerful enough to accelerate and therefore heat the plasma from 6000 K to well over 1 MK over the short distance from the chromosphere and transition region to the corona. Coronal loops, Sunspots create this phenomenon from magnetic flux.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/plasma loop Solar flares “The high magnetic fields in the sunspot-producing active regions also give rise to explosions known as solar flares. When the twisted field lines cross and reconnect, energy explodes outward with a force exceeding that of millions of hydrogen bombs. Plasma loops Temperatures in the outer layer of the sun, known as the corona, typically fall around a few million kelvins. As solar flares push through the corona, they heat its gas to anywhere from 10 to 20 million K, occasionally reaching as high as a hundred million. According to NASA, the energy released in a solar flare “is the equivalent of millions of 100-megaton hydrogen bombs exploding at the same time.” Coronal mass ejections The magnetic field lines that twist up to form solar flares occasionally become so warped that, like rubber bands under tension, they snap and break, then reconnect at other points. The gaps that form no longer hold the sun’s plasma on its surface. Freed, the plasma explodes into space as a coronal mass ejection (CME). cme It takes several hours for the CME to detach itself from the sun, but once it does, it races away at speeds of up to 1,000 km (more than 7 million miles per hour). The cloud of hot plasma and charged particles may be up to 100 billion kilograms (220 billion pounds) in size. Credit Magnetic storms of the Sun.

http://www-pw.physics.uiowa.edu/space-audio/typeIII.html

Arp 220 The Star Factory !!

The Star Factory

The galaxy Arp 220 is home to several giant star clusters—about 10 million solar masses—that are twice as massive as any comparable star cluster in the Milky Way Galaxy. McMaster University’s Christine Wilson is captivated by this turbulent galaxy that provides such a target-rich environment for watching stars form.

A little bit more about Arp 220 and apparently scientists have discovered amino acids there, you will have to excuse the talk of colliding galaxies.

Ingredients for life found ?

The most important thing about this system is not that is 2 colliding galaxies because this is what it is not, it is more like a growing system creating matter.

Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO)                                 “we have found two pairs
of QSOs, one pair of objects at almost exactly the same angular distance from Arp 220 with redshifts that differ only by less than and a second pair at distances of 29 z p 0.009 .8 and 43.1,
respectively. As far as the first pair is concerned, the similarity of the redshifts and the fact that they lie along an axis through the nucleus of Arp 220 and are at roughly the same distance in opposite directions makes it highly unlikely that this is an accidental configuration.

The most likely explanation is that all four of these QSOs are physically associated with Arp 220 and have been ejected from it, so the redshifts are largely intrinsic in origin.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1538-4357/553/1/L11/pdf/015086.web.pdf

Halton Arp one of the fathers of modern cosmology !! Red Shift explained

No black holes.

Real empirical science.

Starts with Cygnus A.

Halton Arp himself talking about his discoveries.

Red shift explained with ejection and matter creation from Active Galactic Nuclei.

Halton Arps Atlas of peculiar galaxies

“The distribution on the sky of clusters of galaxies started to be cataloged about 40 years ago by George Abell and collaborators. The cores of these clusters were predominantly old stellar population E galaxies which were believed to be mostly gas free and inactive. With the advent of X-ray surveys, however, it became evident that many clusters of galaxies were strong X-ray emitters. This evidence for non-equilibrium behavior was not easily explained. In these active properties, however, the clusters joined AGN’s and quasars as the three principal kinds of extragalactic X-ray sources. Evidence then developed that quasars, and now some galaxy clusters were physically associated with much lower redshift galaxies. Surprisingly, the cluster redshifts were sharply peaked at the preferred quasar redshifts of z = .061, .30 etc. (This evidence has been discussed principally in Arp 1997; 1998a; Arp and Russell 2001).”

Our STAR , The Sun

Well it gives us life from the energy it throws our way, photosynthesis for plants and vitamin D for us.

son

It has been worshiped throughout the ages.

What do we really know about it ?

A quick google search will tell you hydrogen and helium and a light sprinkling of metals.

Sun_parts_big

Anything that talks about the center of the sun is theory. So forgot about the millions of degrees at the center of the sun, that is speculation. As there has been to date no concrete proof of this.

Let us instead talk about what we do know for a fact about our star.

The surface of the Sun that we typically see from Earth is the photosphere which is a brightly radiating layer of plasma only about 500 km thick. It is analogous to the ‘anode glow’ region of a laboratory gas discharge experiment

The temperature of the surface of the sun fluctuates according to the activity on the surface, but an average temperature of 5,500 degrees C has been obtained for the photosphere. This is not in the  millions or even hundreds of thousands. No you heard me 5500 C. Temperatures this hot have been made on earth.

The chromosphere is the innermost atmospheric layer. It is just above the photosphere. Here the temperature begins to rise again, to about 20000 degrees C

The Corona of the sun is hotter still, The corona can get about 2 million degrees C.

“The sun’s photosphere is often mistakenly referred to as the surface of the sun. In reality however, the sun’s photosphere is only a “liquid-like” plasma layer made of neon that covers the actual surface of the sun. That visible layer we see with our eyes is composed of penumbral filaments that are several hundred kilometers deep. This visible neon plasma layer that we call the photosphere, and a thicker, more dense atmospheric layer composed of silicon plasma, entirely covers the actual rocky, calcium ferrite surface layer of the sun. The visible photosphere covers the actual surface of the sun, much as the earth’s oceans cover most of the surface of the earth. In this case the sun’s photosphere is very bright and we cannot see the darker, more rigid surface features below the photosphere without the aid of satellite technology.

Nasa's SOHO Satellite imagery of the transition layer beneath the photosphere
Nasa’s SOHO Satellite imagery of the transition layer beneath the photosphere

The composition and mechanical inner workings of the sun beneath the visible photosphere have remained an enigma for thousands of years. There are a whole host of unexplained phenomena related to the sun’s activities that still baffle gas model theorists to this day because they fail to recognize the existence of an iron alloy transitional layer that rests beneath the visible photosphere. Fortunately a host of new satellites and the field of heliosiesmology are starting to shed new light on this mysterious “stratification subsurface” layer of the sun that is located about 4800km beneath the visible photosphere. In addition, recent studies of solar wind suggest that solar wind also originates on the same transition layer under the photosphere as do the electrically charged coronal loops. NASA’s SOHO satellite and the Trace satellite program have both imaged this transition layer of the sun that sits beneath the photosphere. These 21st century satellites and technologies now enable us to peer behind the outer plasma layers of the chromosphere and photosphere and allow us to study the rocky, calcium ferrite transitional layer with incredible precision.

http://www.etwebsite.com/TheSurfaceOfTheSun.pdf

The running difference imaging technique used by both NASA and Lockheed Martin have revealed to us for the first time that the sun is not simply a ball of hydrogen gas in space; it has a hard and rigid ferrite surface below the visible photosphere

T171_20030818_090001

The surface can also be seen in raw satellite images. This close up standard image of the surface layer is provided by Trace using its 171 angstrom filter. This close up image shows remarkable surface detail and also shows a close up view of the solar wind created from the electrical arcs. These arcs create streamers as they travel through the sun’s outer atmosphere of mass separated plasmas.
T171_20030818_090231The same remarkable surface detail is still clearly visible in the transitional region two and half minutes later although the lighting has changed slightly due to changes in the electrical arcs coming from the surface. Unlike in the running difference images, in “standard” close up images we can also see the base of the electrical arcs as they rise off the surface into the silicon plasma to form the familiar coronal loop patterns seen in the upper atmosphere.”

Credit

http://www.thesurfaceofthesun.com/

Electricity clearly has a significant role.

In thiIn this day and age there is no longer any doubt that electrical effects in plasmas play an important role in the phenomena we observe on the Sun.s day and age there is no longer any doubt that electrical effects in plasmas play an important role in the phenomena we observe on the Sun.

In this day and age there is no longer any doubt that electrical effects in plasmas play an important role in the phenomena we observe on the Sun.

Most of the space within our galaxy is occupied by plasma (rarefied ionized gas) containing electrons (negative charges) and ionized atoms (positive charges). Every charged particle in the plasma has an electric potential energy (voltage) just as every pebble on a mountain has a mechanical potential energy with respect to sea level.

The Sun is at the center of a plasma cell, called the heliosphere, that stretches far out – several times the radius of Pluto. As of 9/9/2012 the radius of this plasma cell has been measured to be greater than 18 billion km or 122 times the distance from the Sun to Earth. These are facts not hypotheses.

The Sun is at a more positive electrical potential (voltage) than is the space plasma surrounding it – probably in the order of several billion volts.
Positive ions leave the Sun and electrons enter the Sun. Both of these flows add to form a net positive current flowing through the Sun (entering at the poles and leaving radially at lower latitudes). This constitutes a plasma discharge analogous in every way (except size) to those that have been observed in electrical plasma laboratories for decades. Because of the Sun’s positive charge (voltage), it acts as the anode in a plasma discharge. As such, it exhibits many of the phenomena observed in earthbound plasma laboratory experiments.

The Solar Wind

Positive ions stream outward from the Sun’s surface and accelerate away, through the corona, for as far as we have been able to measure. It is thought that these particles eventually make up a portion of the cosmic ray flux that permeates the cosmos. The ‘wind’ varies with time and has even been observed to stop completely for a period of a day or two.

http://electric-cosmos.org/sun.htm

A couple of questions I found that were interesting

Dr. David Hathaway, a solar scientist at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center,

what determines the frequency of solar activity?

David: The sunspot cycle and solar magnetism.

What makes the out layers of the sun so unstable as to eject flares and cause the coronal loops?

David: It’s all magnetism. The magnetic fields are produced inside the sun by the motions of ionized gases. Those magnetic fields rise thru the surface and can become twisted which results in explosions like flares and coronal mass ejections.

Sources

http://news.softpedia.com/news/Could-the-Sun-Have-a-Solid-Surface-52143.shtml

http://electric-cosmos.org/sun.htm

http://www.nasa.gov/connect/chat/solar_chat2.html

http://nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/st5/SCIENCE/sun.html

Where do black holes come from ?

While it can be said “. Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell  and Pierre-Simon Laplace” Is where the first conception of black holes came from.

However it is relativity and Einstein that really pushed black holes into the forefront of mainstream science.

”  He found a new way to describe gravity. It was not a force, as Sir Isaac Newton had proposed, but a consequence of a distortion in space and time, conceived together in his theory as ‘space-time’. According to Einstein, matter and energy exist on a background of space and time. Objects distort the fabric of space-time based on their mass- more massive objects have a greater effect.”

So the thing to remember here is that this is theory. It is not based on empirical science.

Yet the impact these mythical  constructs are diverting research into real events by fixing the game.

“While black holes, themselves, are invisible, their presence exerts a powerful gravitational force on nearby gas and stars, causing everything to orbit at tremendous speeds. As the matter nears the event horizon, it accelerates until it approaches the speed of light and in the process acquires tremendous energy. Some of this energy is converted into radiation.”

A black hole is in the middle of our galaxy. A Quasar has a black hole in it. A big star when it dies is said to have a black hole.  It continues..

Halton Arp ” No one has ever seen a black hole; they are theoretical objects. The basic idea behind a black hole – that gravity can become infinite and compress a large volume of matter to an infinitesimal point (or ‘singularity’) – is irrational and illogical; nothing finite can ever become infinitely large or small, for these are mathematical abstractions.”:

“Galaxies M87 and NGC 6605 are emitting jets of material and are supposed to have supermassive black holes at their centres. According to D.P., black-hole supporters thought the jets were fed by a doughnut-shaped dust cloud around the M87 black hole and an accretion disc of attracted matter around the NGC 6605 black hole, but observations have failed to find evidence of either.

David Pratt says it is significant that matter is nearly always seen moving away from galactic nuclei, instead of towards them as the black-hole theory requires. This is also true of our own galaxy, and the radiation coming from its centre does not match that expected to come from a black hole. Several scientists have concluded that the centres of active galaxies are regions of matter creation rather than matter destruction. D.P. refers to G. de Purucker’s remarks about laya centres, which energy can flow both into and out of. He adds that every point of space is in a sense a laya centre, and that every entity, every atom, every human, and every celestial body has a laya centre at its core, for every physical form is animated from within outwards.

Mainstream scientists tell us that black holes form by the gravitational collapse of extremely massive stars, and some speculate that large volumes of interstellar gas can collapse into supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. During this process, gravity allegedly becomes infinitely strong, crushing matter to an infinitesimal point of infinite density and infinite ‘spacetime curvature’. This ‘singularity’, as it is called, is surrounded by a gravitational field so intense that nothing entering a black hole’s boundary can ever escape, not even light. Theorists predict that black holes can emit extremely tiny amounts of heat radiation, so that a typical black hole will evaporate in about a million trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion years.

As pointed out in ‘Big bang, black holes, and common sense’, the existence of black holes as defined above can be rejected simply on the grounds of logic and common sense. In the real world, nothing finite can become infinite or infinitesimal; nor can the boundless universe originate from an infinitesimal point, as the big-bang theory claims. As for the notion of ‘curved space’, which Einstein invented to ‘explain’ gravity, several scientists, and also G. de Purucker, have dismissed it as a mathematical delusion. Inside a black hole, ‘spacetime’ supposedly becomes so distorted that space becomes time and time becomes space. Aard Bol is silent about all this – which is not surprising, as it’s unlikely that he has found a way to turn the finite into the infinite, or space into time!

Leaving aside the weird theories about what goes on inside a black hole, what evidence is there that such objects exist? Black holes can never be observed directly, so scientists look for indirect evidence of them: namely, their gravitational effects on matter in their vicinity, and radiation coming from their direct environment (attributed to material falling into them). However, as Fred Hoyle and other critically-minded astronomers have noted, the available evidence merely points to the existence of highly condensed aggregates of matter which produce very strong gravitational fields – but these objects generally appear to be undergoing explosive activity rather than swallowing things up.

The black-hole theory has great difficulty explaining why gas is universally seen moving radially outward from galactic nuclei. It insists that matter must first be attracted towards a hypothetical black hole from surrounding space, and some of it may then somehow get flung in the opposite direction. In the previous article, I mentioned several observations showing that the postulated disks and clouds of gas and dust surrounding ‘black holes’ are often missing; this implies that the gas or radiation speeding outwards originates within the central object itself – which would, by definition, be impossible if it were really a black hole. After space-telescope observations in 1995 failed to detect material around hypothetical black holes at the centre of many quasars, the astronomer heading the investigation called the discovery ‘a giant leap backward’; this major problem for the black-hole theory has still not been solved.”

Credit

http://davidpratt.info/bol.htm