Einsien’s speed of light limit, smashed.!

“No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.” Albert Einstein.

Yes they may sound a little incredible but it is true.

Researchers at the Delft University of technology, have discovered quantum entanglement. Something which relativity says is not possible, due to the cosmic speed limit imposed by Albert.

Two electrons 1.5km away were found to “communicate” in less than the speed of light.

http://phys.org/news/2015-10-historic-delft-einstein-god-dice.html

 

Could this be an end to science dominated by relativity ? I sure hope so.

Tiny magnets mimic steam, water and ice

Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) announced they have created a synthetic material with magnetic properties capable of changing states – just as water changes from solid ice to liquid or steam – with temperature change.

nano magnets

Honeycomb of nanomagnets

The magnets are only 63 nanometres long and shaped roughly like grains of rice. The researchers used a highly advanced technique to place 1 billion of these tiny grains on a flat substrate to form a large-scale honeycomb pattern. The nanomagnets covered a total area of five by five millimetres.

Thanks to a special measuring technique, the scientists initially studied the collective magnetic behaviour of their metamaterial at room temperature. Here there was no order in the magnetic orientation: the magnetic north and south poles pointed randomly in one direction or another.

When the researchers cooled the metamaterial gradually and constantly, however, they reached a point where a higher order appeared: the tiny magnets now noticed each other more than before. As the temperature fell further, there was another change towards an even higher order, in which the magnetic arrangement appeared almost frozen. The long-range order of water molecules increases in a similar way at the moment when water freezes into ice. “We were fascinated by the fact that our synthetic material displayed this everyday phenomenon of a phase transition,” says Heyderman

Credits

Nanomagnets and water properties

New Material Made From 1 Billion Tiny Magnets Changes States Like Water

Tiny magnets mimic steam, water and ice

Arp 220 The Star Factory !!

The Star Factory

The galaxy Arp 220 is home to several giant star clusters—about 10 million solar masses—that are twice as massive as any comparable star cluster in the Milky Way Galaxy. McMaster University’s Christine Wilson is captivated by this turbulent galaxy that provides such a target-rich environment for watching stars form.

A little bit more about Arp 220 and apparently scientists have discovered amino acids there, you will have to excuse the talk of colliding galaxies.

Ingredients for life found ?

The most important thing about this system is not that is 2 colliding galaxies because this is what it is not, it is more like a growing system creating matter.

Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO)                                 “we have found two pairs
of QSOs, one pair of objects at almost exactly the same angular distance from Arp 220 with redshifts that differ only by less than and a second pair at distances of 29 z p 0.009 .8 and 43.1,
respectively. As far as the first pair is concerned, the similarity of the redshifts and the fact that they lie along an axis through the nucleus of Arp 220 and are at roughly the same distance in opposite directions makes it highly unlikely that this is an accidental configuration.

The most likely explanation is that all four of these QSOs are physically associated with Arp 220 and have been ejected from it, so the redshifts are largely intrinsic in origin.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1538-4357/553/1/L11/pdf/015086.web.pdf

Where do black holes come from ?

While it can be said “. Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell  and Pierre-Simon Laplace” Is where the first conception of black holes came from.

However it is relativity and Einstein that really pushed black holes into the forefront of mainstream science.

”  He found a new way to describe gravity. It was not a force, as Sir Isaac Newton had proposed, but a consequence of a distortion in space and time, conceived together in his theory as ‘space-time’. According to Einstein, matter and energy exist on a background of space and time. Objects distort the fabric of space-time based on their mass- more massive objects have a greater effect.”

So the thing to remember here is that this is theory. It is not based on empirical science.

Yet the impact these mythical  constructs are diverting research into real events by fixing the game.

“While black holes, themselves, are invisible, their presence exerts a powerful gravitational force on nearby gas and stars, causing everything to orbit at tremendous speeds. As the matter nears the event horizon, it accelerates until it approaches the speed of light and in the process acquires tremendous energy. Some of this energy is converted into radiation.”

A black hole is in the middle of our galaxy. A Quasar has a black hole in it. A big star when it dies is said to have a black hole.  It continues..

Halton Arp ” No one has ever seen a black hole; they are theoretical objects. The basic idea behind a black hole – that gravity can become infinite and compress a large volume of matter to an infinitesimal point (or ‘singularity’) – is irrational and illogical; nothing finite can ever become infinitely large or small, for these are mathematical abstractions.”:

“Galaxies M87 and NGC 6605 are emitting jets of material and are supposed to have supermassive black holes at their centres. According to D.P., black-hole supporters thought the jets were fed by a doughnut-shaped dust cloud around the M87 black hole and an accretion disc of attracted matter around the NGC 6605 black hole, but observations have failed to find evidence of either.

David Pratt says it is significant that matter is nearly always seen moving away from galactic nuclei, instead of towards them as the black-hole theory requires. This is also true of our own galaxy, and the radiation coming from its centre does not match that expected to come from a black hole. Several scientists have concluded that the centres of active galaxies are regions of matter creation rather than matter destruction. D.P. refers to G. de Purucker’s remarks about laya centres, which energy can flow both into and out of. He adds that every point of space is in a sense a laya centre, and that every entity, every atom, every human, and every celestial body has a laya centre at its core, for every physical form is animated from within outwards.

Mainstream scientists tell us that black holes form by the gravitational collapse of extremely massive stars, and some speculate that large volumes of interstellar gas can collapse into supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. During this process, gravity allegedly becomes infinitely strong, crushing matter to an infinitesimal point of infinite density and infinite ‘spacetime curvature’. This ‘singularity’, as it is called, is surrounded by a gravitational field so intense that nothing entering a black hole’s boundary can ever escape, not even light. Theorists predict that black holes can emit extremely tiny amounts of heat radiation, so that a typical black hole will evaporate in about a million trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion years.

As pointed out in ‘Big bang, black holes, and common sense’, the existence of black holes as defined above can be rejected simply on the grounds of logic and common sense. In the real world, nothing finite can become infinite or infinitesimal; nor can the boundless universe originate from an infinitesimal point, as the big-bang theory claims. As for the notion of ‘curved space’, which Einstein invented to ‘explain’ gravity, several scientists, and also G. de Purucker, have dismissed it as a mathematical delusion. Inside a black hole, ‘spacetime’ supposedly becomes so distorted that space becomes time and time becomes space. Aard Bol is silent about all this – which is not surprising, as it’s unlikely that he has found a way to turn the finite into the infinite, or space into time!

Leaving aside the weird theories about what goes on inside a black hole, what evidence is there that such objects exist? Black holes can never be observed directly, so scientists look for indirect evidence of them: namely, their gravitational effects on matter in their vicinity, and radiation coming from their direct environment (attributed to material falling into them). However, as Fred Hoyle and other critically-minded astronomers have noted, the available evidence merely points to the existence of highly condensed aggregates of matter which produce very strong gravitational fields – but these objects generally appear to be undergoing explosive activity rather than swallowing things up.

The black-hole theory has great difficulty explaining why gas is universally seen moving radially outward from galactic nuclei. It insists that matter must first be attracted towards a hypothetical black hole from surrounding space, and some of it may then somehow get flung in the opposite direction. In the previous article, I mentioned several observations showing that the postulated disks and clouds of gas and dust surrounding ‘black holes’ are often missing; this implies that the gas or radiation speeding outwards originates within the central object itself – which would, by definition, be impossible if it were really a black hole. After space-telescope observations in 1995 failed to detect material around hypothetical black holes at the centre of many quasars, the astronomer heading the investigation called the discovery ‘a giant leap backward’; this major problem for the black-hole theory has still not been solved.”

Credit

http://davidpratt.info/bol.htm

Comets are they really snowballs ? The evidence says no..

Nowhere in this article is the comet referred to as ice, it has been said now that this comet is a space rock.

Many thanks to the Thunderbolts crew

Our electric star is connected to us through plasma

Thanks to the thunderbolts crew for their great work.

plasma

This is an awesome accomplishment. Cleo Loi, a 23-year-old undergrad student, “has discovered that giant, invisible, moving plasma tubes fill the skies above Earth.”

First she was met with disbelief. “Ms Loi told news.com.au that her research was initially dismissed as being based on imperfections in the telescope images. ‘They had never seen this type of thing before. No one had looked at the data in this way before,’ she said. ‘A lot of the people were pretty convinced is was some problem with the imaging, that it was nothing to get excited about.'”

The implications could be far-reaching. “Ms Loi said the drifting plasma tubes could distort astronomical data, especially satellite-based navigation systems. It may also mean we need to re-evaluate our thinking about how galaxies, stars and clouds of gas behave and what they look like.”

Cleo Loi is a student of the ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) and the School of Physics at the University of Sydney. She has been working on this research as a part of her undergraduate thesis and is the lead author of this award winning research paper which was published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. Cleo Loi et al has invented a three dimensional way to view the Earth’s magnetosphere.

Loi said: “For over 60 years, scientists believed these structures existed but by imaging them for the first time, we’ve provided visual evidence that they are really there.”

Basically, Sun is constantly emitting charged particles or ionized particles towards Earth. Scientists believe Earth is surrounded by complex magnetic field known as magnetosphere (that protects life on Earth from any damage). When these ionized particles approach Earth their path gets diverted due to which some of the particles may get deflected while some may be funneled towards the pole of Earth resulting in a spectacular array of light, due to the interaction between the magnetic fields and the eruption of gas from these charged particles, thus leading to a display known as ‘aurora’.

Earth’s protective magnetosphere further comprises of ionosphere and plasmasphere. The innermost being ionosphere and the layer above that is plasmasphere. Though not much is known about these complex structures and the research work is still under progress; however scientists believe that these are embedded with a plasma structures which are in the form of tubes and various other strange shapes.

The ionosphere does interfere with satellite navigation systems as well as it affects the images that are received by the radio telescopes hence a detailed study of this layer is a must.

By using the Murchinson Widefield Array (MWA), a radio telescope in the Western Australian desert, Loi probed these regions and ultimately landed on discovering the visual evidences of the 60 year old theory of tubular plasma structures drifting around the Earth.

Loi said: “The discovery of the structures is important because they cause unwanted signal distortions that could, as one example, affect our civilian and military satellite-based navigation systems. So we need to understand them.”

A forerunner of Square Kilometer Array (SKA), MWA consists of 128 antennae that are spread over a huge area of three kilometers which is almost 2 miles.

In her research study, Loi attempted to achieve a vision similar to binocular by splitting the western ends of the array from the eastern ends thus making it possible to get a three dimensional view of the magnetosphere.

Usually when the MWA is used for astronomical work, with a three kilometer baseline it cannot give the required parallax effect that is essential to get the in-depth view. However, during this research the situation was entirely different as the astronomers were looking close to Earth.

During her study, Loi was able to map a series of high and low density plasma tubes that connected the ionosphere and plasmasphere,  in addition these tubes were running parallel to the magnetic field. Says Loi: “We measured their position to be about 600 kilometres [373 miles] above the ground, in the upper ionosphere, and they appear to be continuing upwards into the plasmasphere. This is around where the neutral atmosphere ends, and we are transitioning to the plasma of outer space.”

Further it was seen that with time the tubes are moving slowly hence a changing interference effect has been experienced by the telescopes.

While speaking to IFLScience, Loi said that earlier researchers have been successful in limited probing into the ionosphere using Very Large Array, which is some other type of radio telescope; however applying parallax and getting a visual evidence is something totally new and has never been previously applied to the problem.

Loi said: “People theorized something like this from observations of a type of very low frequency electromagnetic wave. We can detect lightning from another hemisphere and people concluded there must be plasma tubes guiding the signal. It’s a very indirect conclusion, and no one had much idea what these tubes were like.”

For her breakthrough research, Cleo Loi has been awarded the 2015 Bok Prize of the Astronomical Society of Australia.

Loi has mentioned that it was amazing to visualize the giant plasma tubes using MWA’s enormous 30° field. Loi further envisages that the SKA is used in future to study the ionosphere and hopes that the publicity of her research would definitely be successful in bringing about this major change.

credit

News story regarding this discovery of Plasma tubes.

Milky way star filaments found, latest space news

New Herschel Images Reveal How Matter is Distributed Across Our Milky Way

May 29, 2015

Space

Image Reveals How Matter is Distributed Across Our Milky Way

This new image of filament G49 reveals how matter is distributed across our Milky Way galaxy.

New images of huge filamentary structures of gas and dust from the Herschel space observatory reveal how matter is distributed across our Milky Way galaxy. Long and flimsy threads emerge from a twisted mix of material, taking on complex shapes.

This image shows a filament called G49, which contains 80,000 suns’ worth of mass. This huge but slender structure of gas and dust extends about 280 light-years in length, while its diameter is only about 5 light-years across.

In this image, longer-wavelength light has been assigned visible colors. Light with wavelengths of 70 microns is blue; 160-micron light is green; and 350-micron light is red. Cooler gas and dust are seen in red and yellow, with temperatures as low as minus 421 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 252 degrees Celsius).

In the densest and coolest clumps, the seeds of new generations of stars are taking shape. A brighter clump of matter is visible at the left tip of the wispy thread.

This filament is about 18,000 light-years away. The image is oriented with northeast toward the left of the image and southwest toward the right.

Herschel is a European Space Agency mission, with science instruments provided by consortia of European institutes and with important participation by NASA. While the observatory stopped making science observations in April 2013, after running out of liquid coolant as expected, scientists continue to analyze its data. NASA’s Herschel Project Office is based at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. JPL contributed mission-enabling technology for two of Herschel’s three science instruments. The NASA Herschel Science Center, part of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, supports the U.S. astronomical community. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

Publication: Ke Wang, et al., “Large-scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms,” MNRAS (July 11, 2015) 450 (4): 4043-4049; doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv735

PDF Copy of the Study: Large scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

Source: NASA