“The distribution on the sky of clusters of galaxies started to be cataloged about 40 years ago by George Abell and collaborators. The cores of these clusters were predominantly old stellar population E galaxies which were believed to be mostly gas free and inactive. With the advent of X-ray surveys, however, it became evident that many clusters of galaxies were strong X-ray emitters. This evidence for non-equilibrium behavior was not easily explained. In these active properties, however, the clusters joined AGN’s and quasars as the three principal kinds of extragalactic X-ray sources. Evidence then developed that quasars, and now some galaxy clusters were physically associated with much lower redshift galaxies. Surprisingly, the cluster redshifts were sharply peaked at the preferred quasar redshifts of z = .061, .30 etc. (This evidence has been discussed principally in Arp 1997; 1998a; Arp and Russell 2001).”
Black holes are everywhere according to media reports.
So lets go to the big cheese to see what they say about black holes from Nasa
“Don’t let the name fool you: a black hole is anything but empty space. Rather, it is a great amount of matter packed into a very small area – think of a star ten times more massive than the Sun squeezed into a sphere approximately the diameter of New York City. The result is a gravitational field so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape. In recent years, NASA instruments have painted a new picture of these strange objects that are, to many, the most fascinating objects in space.”
Yes because black holes are based on theoretical physics not actual real empirical physics.
So let us again look at the nature of black holes “The result is a gravitational field so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape.”
Well I assume that means gas as well, as I am sure the oxygen is held to the earth with its weak gravity.
So nothing can escape a black hole.
But instead observations from Active Galactic Nuclei suggests that matter is being continually ejected.
All galaxies according to science fairies have black holes in them.
Nasa then says this about the ejection and black holes
” Before it falls in the gas becomes incredibly hot, so hot that it emits X-rays, Some of that gas doesn’t fall into the black hole but instead is shot out as ‘jets’ of hot gas.”
Ok so black holes have a gravity so strong light cannot escape, but x rays and hot gas can.
Sounds like a story to me, there hasn’t been one proven yet.
The Maunder Minimum,is the name used for the period starting in about 1645 and continuing to about 1715 when sunspots became exceedingly rare, as noted by solar observers of the time. also known as the “prolonged sunspot minimum”. Or otherwise known as a time the sun goes to sleep in the solar cycle. The great famine of 1693-1694 is due to a severe winter in 1692 in France. Earth is 15 years from a “mini ice age” that will cause bitterly cold winters during which rivers freeze over, scientists have predicted. Solar researchers at the University of Northumbria have created a new model of the sun’s activity which they claim produces “unprecedentedly accurate predictions”. They said fluid movements within the sun, thought to create 11-year cycles in the weather, will converge in such a way that temperatures will fall dramatically in the 2030s. Solar activity will fall by 60 per cent as two waves of fluid “effectively cancel each other out”, according to Professor Valentina Zharkova. In a presentation to the National Astronomy Meeting in Wales, she said the result would be similar to freezing conditions of the late 17th century. “[In the cycle between 2030 and 2040] the two waves exactly mirror each other – peaking at the same time but in opposite hemispheres of the sun,” she said. Maunder minimum, indicating low sunspot activity, was the name given to the period between 1645 and 1715 when Europe and North America experienced very cold winters. In England during this “Little Ice Age”, River Thames frost fairs were held. In the winter of 1683-84 the Thames froze over for seven weeks, making it “passable by foot”, according to historical records. News on the solar sleep
Well it gives us life from the energy it throws our way, photosynthesis for plants and vitamin D for us.
It has been worshiped throughout the ages.
What do we really know about it ?
A quick google search will tell you hydrogen and helium and a light sprinkling of metals.
Anything that talks about the center of the sun is theory. So forgot about the millions of degrees at the center of the sun, that is speculation. As there has been to date no concrete proof of this.
Let us instead talk about what we do know for a fact about our star.
The surface of the Sun that we typically see from Earth is the photosphere which is a brightly radiating layer of plasma only about 500 km thick. It is analogous to the ‘anode glow’ region of a laboratory gas discharge experiment
The temperature of the surface of the sun fluctuates according to the activity on the surface, but an average temperature of 5,500 degrees C has been obtained for the photosphere. This is not in the millions or even hundreds of thousands. No you heard me 5500 C. Temperatures this hot have been made on earth.
The chromosphere is the innermost atmospheric layer. It is just above the photosphere. Here the temperature begins to rise again, to about 20000 degrees C
The Corona of the sun is hotter still, The corona can get about 2 million degrees C.
“The sun’s photosphere is often mistakenly referred to as the surface of the sun. In reality however, the sun’s photosphere is only a “liquid-like” plasma layer made of neon that covers the actual surface of the sun. That visible layer we see with our eyes is composed of penumbral filaments that are several hundred kilometers deep. This visible neon plasma layer that we call the photosphere, and a thicker, more dense atmospheric layer composed of silicon plasma, entirely covers the actual rocky, calcium ferrite surface layer of the sun. The visible photosphere covers the actual surface of the sun, much as the earth’s oceans cover most of the surface of the earth. In this case the sun’s photosphere is very bright and we cannot see the darker, more rigid surface features below the photosphere without the aid of satellite technology.
The composition and mechanical inner workings of the sun beneath the visible photosphere have remained an enigma for thousands of years. There are a whole host of unexplained phenomena related to the sun’s activities that still baffle gas model theorists to this day because they fail to recognize the existence of an iron alloy transitional layer that rests beneath the visible photosphere. Fortunately a host of new satellites and the field of heliosiesmology are starting to shed new light on this mysterious “stratification subsurface” layer of the sun that is located about 4800km beneath the visible photosphere. In addition, recent studies of solar wind suggest that solar wind also originates on the same transition layer under the photosphere as do the electrically charged coronal loops. NASA’s SOHO satellite and the Trace satellite program have both imaged this transition layer of the sun that sits beneath the photosphere. These 21st century satellites and technologies now enable us to peer behind the outer plasma layers of the chromosphere and photosphere and allow us to study the rocky, calcium ferrite transitional layer with incredible precision.
The running difference imaging technique used by both NASA and Lockheed Martin have revealed to us for the first time that the sun is not simply a ball of hydrogen gas in space; it has a hard and rigid ferrite surface below the visible photosphere
The surface can also be seen in raw satellite images. This close up standard image of the surface layer is provided by Trace using its 171 angstrom filter. This close up image shows remarkable surface detail and also shows a close up view of the solar wind created from the electrical arcs. These arcs create streamers as they travel through the sun’s outer atmosphere of mass separated plasmas.
The same remarkable surface detail is still clearly visible in the transitional region two and half minutes later although the lighting has changed slightly due to changes in the electrical arcs coming from the surface. Unlike in the running difference images, in “standard” close up images we can also see the base of the electrical arcs as they rise off the surface into the silicon plasma to form the familiar coronal loop patterns seen in the upper atmosphere.”
In thiIn this day and age there is no longer any doubt that electrical effects in plasmas play an important role in the phenomena we observe on the Sun.s day and age there is no longer any doubt that electrical effects in plasmas play an important role in the phenomena we observe on the Sun.
In this day and age there is no longer any doubt that electrical effects in plasmas play an important role in the phenomena we observe on the Sun.
Most of the space within our galaxy is occupied by plasma (rarefied ionized gas) containing electrons (negative charges) and ionized atoms (positive charges). Every charged particle in the plasma has an electric potential energy (voltage) just as every pebble on a mountain has a mechanical potential energy with respect to sea level.
The Sun is at the center of a plasma cell, called the heliosphere, that stretches far out – several times the radius of Pluto. As of 9/9/2012 the radius of this plasma cell has been measured to be greater than 18 billion km or 122 times the distance from the Sun to Earth. These are facts not hypotheses.
The Sun is at a more positive electrical potential (voltage) than is the space plasma surrounding it – probably in the order of several billion volts.
Positive ions leave the Sun and electrons enter the Sun. Both of these flows add to form a net positive current flowing through the Sun (entering at the poles and leaving radially at lower latitudes). This constitutes a plasma discharge analogous in every way (except size) to those that have been observed in electrical plasma laboratories for decades. Because of the Sun’s positive charge (voltage), it acts as the anode in a plasma discharge. As such, it exhibits many of the phenomena observed in earthbound plasma laboratory experiments.
The Solar Wind
Positive ions stream outward from the Sun’s surface and accelerate away, through the corona, for as far as we have been able to measure. It is thought that these particles eventually make up a portion of the cosmic ray flux that permeates the cosmos. The ‘wind’ varies with time and has even been observed to stop completely for a period of a day or two.
A couple of questions I found that were interesting
Dr. David Hathaway, a solar scientist at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center,
what determines the frequency of solar activity?
David: The sunspot cycle and solar magnetism.
What makes the out layers of the sun so unstable as to eject flares and cause the coronal loops?
David: It’s all magnetism. The magnetic fields are produced inside the sun by the motions of ionized gases. Those magnetic fields rise thru the surface and can become twisted which results in explosions like flares and coronal mass ejections.
Once again the corporate media has given us more theory regarding the middle of galaxies that doesn’t actually make sense. A Supermassive black hole is at the center of our galaxy. It sounds pretty scary, anyway it has to be right because it is all about gravity and these guys must know what they are talking about.
Let us look at the facts about the middle of our galaxy and then let us look at theory of black holes.
Our galaxy the milky way has a center which the rest of us spin around. X-ray and radio observations offer the best evidence yet that, as long suspected, high-energy particles stream from the heart of our galaxy. There is also gas being ejected. So we have the center of the galaxy making stuff and energy. The center of the galaxy is shrouded in so much gas and dust that nothing is easy to see there from our perspective on Earth. “There’s basically all the gunk between us and the galactic center, plus a big screen of plasma that is sort of like bathroom shower glass, serving to smear out images because of electron scattering,” says astronomer Sera Markoff of the University of Amsterdam.
You would think that a supermassive black hole would consume vast amounts of material around it and be visible by the absence of material around it. But no, it doesn’t work like this at all. The center of our galaxy is an electrical furnace creating the material and elements found within it. Not a destroyer of matter, as black hole theory would suggest.
Why are we bombarded with back holes when..
They cannot define it as a region of space or an object in space.
They have never seen one and don’t know what they are made of.
They are predicted in gravity theory but sadly to this day have never been proven as fact.
Galaxies like to hang out together in groups, in our group at the heart is M87, a supergiant galaxy.
Messier 87 (also known as Virgo A or NGC 4486, and generally abbreviated to M87) is a supergiant elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo. One of the most massive galaxies in the local universe, it is notable for its large population of globular clusters—M87 contains about 12,000 compared to the 150-200 orbiting the Milky Way—and its jet of energetic plasma that originates at the core and extends outward at least 1,500 parsecs (4,900 light-years), travelling at relativistic speed. It is one of the brightest radio sources in the sky, and is a popular target for both amateur astronomy observations and professional astronomy study.
Once again when dealing with the wonders of our local supercluster we have annoying theoretical concepts hijacking the research.
“At the core of this galaxy is a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with an estimated (3.5 ± 0.8) × 109 times the mass of the Sun. This is one of the highest masses known for such an object.”
“So gravity pulls on light just as on rocks. We also know that we can put rocks in orbit, can we put light in orbit? Yes! but we need a very heavy object whose radius is very small, for example, we need something as heavy as the sun but squashed to a radius of less than about 3km. Given such an object, light moving towards it in the right direction will, if it comes close enough land in an orbit around it. If you place yourself in the path of light as it orbits the object, you’d be able to see your back.
But we can go farther and imagine an object so massive and compact that if we turn on a laser beam on its surface gravity’s pull will bend it back towards the surface. Think what this means: since no light can leave this object it will appear perfectly black, this is a black hole. An object which comes sufficiently close to a black hole will also disappear into it (since nothing moves faster than light if an object traps light it will also trap everything else).
The effect of a black holes, like all gravitational effects, decreases with distance. This means that there will be a “boundary” surrounding the black hole such that anything crossing it will be unable to leave the region near the black hole; this boundary is called the black-hole horizon see Fig. 7.10 Anything crossing the horizon is permanently trapped. Black holes are prefect roach motels: once you check in (by crossing the horizon), you never check out.”
While it can be said “. Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace” Is where the first conception of black holes came from.
However it is relativity and Einstein that really pushed black holes into the forefront of mainstream science.
” He found a new way to describe gravity. It was not a force, as Sir Isaac Newton had proposed, but a consequence of a distortion in space and time, conceived together in his theory as ‘space-time’. According to Einstein, matter and energy exist on a background of space and time. Objects distort the fabric of space-time based on their mass- more massive objects have a greater effect.”
So the thing to remember here is that this is theory. It is not based on empirical science.
Yet the impact these mythical constructs are diverting research into real events by fixing the game.
“While black holes, themselves, are invisible, their presence exerts a powerful gravitational force on nearby gas and stars, causing everything to orbit at tremendous speeds. As the matter nears the event horizon, it accelerates until it approaches the speed of light and in the process acquires tremendous energy. Some of this energy is converted into radiation.”
A black hole is in the middle of our galaxy. A Quasar has a black hole in it. A big star when it dies is said to have a black hole. It continues..
Halton Arp ” No one has ever seen a black hole; they are theoretical objects. The basic idea behind a black hole – that gravity can become infinite and compress a large volume of matter to an infinitesimal point (or ‘singularity’) – is irrational and illogical; nothing finite can ever become infinitely large or small, for these are mathematical abstractions.”:
“Galaxies M87 and NGC 6605 are emitting jets of material and are supposed to have supermassive black holes at their centres. According to D.P., black-hole supporters thought the jets were fed by a doughnut-shaped dust cloud around the M87 black hole and an accretion disc of attracted matter around the NGC 6605 black hole, but observations have failed to find evidence of either.
David Pratt says it is significant that matter is nearly always seen moving away from galactic nuclei, instead of towards them as the black-hole theory requires. This is also true of our own galaxy, and the radiation coming from its centre does not match that expected to come from a black hole. Several scientists have concluded that the centres of active galaxies are regions of matter creation rather than matter destruction. D.P. refers to G. de Purucker’s remarks about laya centres, which energy can flow both into and out of. He adds that every point of space is in a sense a laya centre, and that every entity, every atom, every human, and every celestial body has a laya centre at its core, for every physical form is animated from within outwards.
Mainstream scientists tell us that black holes form by the gravitational collapse of extremely massive stars, and some speculate that large volumes of interstellar gas can collapse into supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. During this process, gravity allegedly becomes infinitely strong, crushing matter to an infinitesimal point of infinite density and infinite ‘spacetime curvature’. This ‘singularity’, as it is called, is surrounded by a gravitational field so intense that nothing entering a black hole’s boundary can ever escape, not even light. Theorists predict that black holes can emit extremely tiny amounts of heat radiation, so that a typical black hole will evaporate in about a million trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion years.
As pointed out in ‘Big bang, black holes, and common sense’, the existence of black holes as defined above can be rejected simply on the grounds of logic and common sense. In the real world, nothing finite can become infinite or infinitesimal; nor can the boundless universe originate from an infinitesimal point, as the big-bang theory claims. As for the notion of ‘curved space’, which Einstein invented to ‘explain’ gravity, several scientists, and also G. de Purucker, have dismissed it as a mathematical delusion. Inside a black hole, ‘spacetime’ supposedly becomes so distorted that space becomes time and time becomes space. Aard Bol is silent about all this – which is not surprising, as it’s unlikely that he has found a way to turn the finite into the infinite, or space into time!
Leaving aside the weird theories about what goes on inside a black hole, what evidence is there that such objects exist? Black holes can never be observed directly, so scientists look for indirect evidence of them: namely, their gravitational effects on matter in their vicinity, and radiation coming from their direct environment (attributed to material falling into them). However, as Fred Hoyle and other critically-minded astronomers have noted, the available evidence merely points to the existence of highly condensed aggregates of matter which produce very strong gravitational fields – but these objects generally appear to be undergoing explosive activity rather than swallowing things up.
The black-hole theory has great difficulty explaining why gas is universally seen moving radially outward from galactic nuclei. It insists that matter must first be attracted towards a hypothetical black hole from surrounding space, and some of it may then somehow get flung in the opposite direction. In the previous article, I mentioned several observations showing that the postulated disks and clouds of gas and dust surrounding ‘black holes’ are often missing; this implies that the gas or radiation speeding outwards originates within the central object itself – which would, by definition, be impossible if it were really a black hole. After space-telescope observations in 1995 failed to detect material around hypothetical black holes at the centre of many quasars, the astronomer heading the investigation called the discovery ‘a giant leap backward’; this major problem for the black-hole theory has still not been solved.”
This single-frame Rosetta navigation camera image of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was taken on October 19, 2014, at a distance of approximately 4.9 miles (7.9 km) from the comet’s surface and released on May 28. The image looks across the neck from the comet’s small lobe in the foreground to the large lobe in the background. Parts of the Anuket and Serqet regions are visible in the foreground and a portion of Hapi is present at center left, with the dramatic cliff edge in Seth in the background.
Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NavCam – CC BY-SA IGO 3.0
A deluge of newly released photos from the Rosetta mission reveals the haunting alien landscape on the surface of a comet as it orbits the sun.
Over the last few weeks, the European Space Agency (ESA) has released over 1,700 new images of the Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, taken by the Rosetta spacecraft during its closest approach to the 2.5-mile-wide (4 kilometers) space rock. The photos emanate an eerie stillness on the rocky, lifeless surface.
NavCam image of Comet 67P/C-G taken on Oct. 23, 2014 and released on May 5. The image shows a feature of the comet known as the cliffs of Hathor, which are roughly 2,952 feet (900 meters) high.
Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NavCam – CC BY-SA IGO 3.0
The two-lobe shape of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has drawn comparisons to a rubber duck (with a round head and larger body joined together by a narrow section). One of the new images was taken from the smaller lobe, with the larger lobe rising up like a cliff face in the distance.
The images reveal a highly varied topological landscape on the surface of the comet. In one image, the cliffs of Hathor are visible. These cliffs stretch 2952 feet (900 meters) high.
An image of the rocky, lifeless surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, taken by the NavCam instrument on the Rosetta spacecraft on Oct. 27, 2014, and released on May 26.
Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NavCam – CC BY-SA IGO 3.0
Rosetta traveled to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko along with the Philae lander, which touched down on the comet’s surface on Nov. 12, 2014. Philae bounced off the surface and came to rest in a shadowed region where its solar panels do not receive enough light to recharge the lander.
An image of the surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, taken by the NavCam instrument on the Rosetta spacecraft on Oct. 26, 2014, and released on May 26.
Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NavCam – CC BY-SA IGO 3.0
Nowhere in this article is the comet referred to as ice, it has been said now that this comet is a space rock.
Thanks to the thunderbolts crew for their great work.
This is an awesome accomplishment. Cleo Loi, a 23-year-old undergrad student, “has discovered that giant, invisible, moving plasma tubes fill the skies above Earth.”
First she was met with disbelief. “Ms Loi told news.com.au that her research was initially dismissed as being based on imperfections in the telescope images. ‘They had never seen this type of thing before. No one had looked at the data in this way before,’ she said. ‘A lot of the people were pretty convinced is was some problem with the imaging, that it was nothing to get excited about.'”
The implications could be far-reaching. “Ms Loi said the drifting plasma tubes could distort astronomical data, especially satellite-based navigation systems. It may also mean we need to re-evaluate our thinking about how galaxies, stars and clouds of gas behave and what they look like.”
Cleo Loi is a student of the ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) and the School of Physics at the University of Sydney. She has been working on this research as a part of her undergraduate thesis and is the lead author of this award winning research paper which was published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. Cleo Loi et al has invented a three dimensional way to view the Earth’s magnetosphere.
Loi said: “For over 60 years, scientists believed these structures existed but by imaging them for the first time, we’ve provided visual evidence that they are really there.”
Basically, Sun is constantly emitting charged particles or ionized particles towards Earth. Scientists believe Earth is surrounded by complex magnetic field known as magnetosphere (that protects life on Earth from any damage). When these ionized particles approach Earth their path gets diverted due to which some of the particles may get deflected while some may be funneled towards the pole of Earth resulting in a spectacular array of light, due to the interaction between the magnetic fields and the eruption of gas from these charged particles, thus leading to a display known as ‘aurora’.
Earth’s protective magnetosphere further comprises of ionosphere and plasmasphere. The innermost being ionosphere and the layer above that is plasmasphere. Though not much is known about these complex structures and the research work is still under progress; however scientists believe that these are embedded with a plasma structures which are in the form of tubes and various other strange shapes.
The ionosphere does interfere with satellite navigation systems as well as it affects the images that are received by the radio telescopes hence a detailed study of this layer is a must.
By using the Murchinson Widefield Array (MWA), a radio telescope in the Western Australian desert, Loi probed these regions and ultimately landed on discovering the visual evidences of the 60 year old theory of tubular plasma structures drifting around the Earth.
Loi said: “The discovery of the structures is important because they cause unwanted signal distortions that could, as one example, affect our civilian and military satellite-based navigation systems. So we need to understand them.”
A forerunner of Square Kilometer Array (SKA), MWA consists of 128 antennae that are spread over a huge area of three kilometers which is almost 2 miles.
In her research study, Loi attempted to achieve a vision similar to binocular by splitting the western ends of the array from the eastern ends thus making it possible to get a three dimensional view of the magnetosphere.
Usually when the MWA is used for astronomical work, with a three kilometer baseline it cannot give the required parallax effect that is essential to get the in-depth view. However, during this research the situation was entirely different as the astronomers were looking close to Earth.
During her study, Loi was able to map a series of high and low density plasma tubes that connected the ionosphere and plasmasphere, in addition these tubes were running parallel to the magnetic field. Says Loi: “We measured their position to be about 600 kilometres [373 miles] above the ground, in the upper ionosphere, and they appear to be continuing upwards into the plasmasphere. This is around where the neutral atmosphere ends, and we are transitioning to the plasma of outer space.”
Further it was seen that with time the tubes are moving slowly hence a changing interference effect has been experienced by the telescopes.
While speaking to IFLScience, Loi said that earlier researchers have been successful in limited probing into the ionosphere using Very Large Array, which is some other type of radio telescope; however applying parallax and getting a visual evidence is something totally new and has never been previously applied to the problem.
Loi said: “People theorized something like this from observations of a type of very low frequency electromagnetic wave. We can detect lightning from another hemisphere and people concluded there must be plasma tubes guiding the signal. It’s a very indirect conclusion, and no one had much idea what these tubes were like.”
For her breakthrough research, Cleo Loi has been awarded the 2015 Bok Prize of the Astronomical Society of Australia.
Loi has mentioned that it was amazing to visualize the giant plasma tubes using MWA’s enormous 30° field. Loi further envisages that the SKA is used in future to study the ionosphere and hopes that the publicity of her research would definitely be successful in bringing about this major change.
This new image of filament G49 reveals how matter is distributed across our Milky Way galaxy.
New images of huge filamentary structures of gas and dust from the Herschel space observatory reveal how matter is distributed across our Milky Way galaxy. Long and flimsy threads emerge from a twisted mix of material, taking on complex shapes.
This image shows a filament called G49, which contains 80,000 suns’ worth of mass. This huge but slender structure of gas and dust extends about 280 light-years in length, while its diameter is only about 5 light-years across.
In this image, longer-wavelength light has been assigned visible colors. Light with wavelengths of 70 microns is blue; 160-micron light is green; and 350-micron light is red. Cooler gas and dust are seen in red and yellow, with temperatures as low as minus 421 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 252 degrees Celsius).
In the densest and coolest clumps, the seeds of new generations of stars are taking shape. A brighter clump of matter is visible at the left tip of the wispy thread.
This filament is about 18,000 light-years away. The image is oriented with northeast toward the left of the image and southwest toward the right.
Herschel is a European Space Agency mission, with science instruments provided by consortia of European institutes and with important participation by NASA. While the observatory stopped making science observations in April 2013, after running out of liquid coolant as expected, scientists continue to analyze its data. NASA’s Herschel Project Office is based at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. JPL contributed mission-enabling technology for two of Herschel’s three science instruments. The NASA Herschel Science Center, part of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, supports the U.S. astronomical community. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.
Publication: Ke Wang, et al., “Large-scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms,” MNRAS (July 11, 2015) 450 (4): 4043-4049; doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv735