Current models of how stars evolve lack magnetic fields as a fundamental ingredient.
An international group of astronomers led by the University of Sydney has discovered strong magnetic fields are common in stars, not rare as previously thought, which will dramatically impact our understanding of how stars evolve.
Using data from NASA’s Kepler mission, the team found that stars only slightly more massive than the Sun have internal magnetic fields up to 10 million times that of the Earth,
Because only 5-10 percent of stars were previously thought to host strong magnetic fields, current models of how stars evolve lack magnetic fields as a fundamental ingredient,” Associate Professor Stello said. “Such fields have simply been regarded insignificant for our general understanding of stellar evolution.
Sunspots It happens down by the surface probably beneath. But what it causes on the surface is quite astonishing. Sunspots are the visible counterparts of magnetic flux tubes. Sunspots come in pairs with opposite magnetic polarity. From cycle to cycle, the polarities of leading and trailing (with respect to the solar rotation) sunspots change from north/south to south/north and back. Sunspots usually appear in groups. In 2001, observations from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) using sound waves traveling below the Sun’s photosphere (local helioseismology) were used to develop a three-dimensional image of the internal structure below sunspots; these observations show that there is a powerful downdraft underneath each sunspot, forming a rotating vortex that concentrates the magnetic field.
The sunspots often form plasma loops, which are also called Coronal loops. The process feeds the corona with chromospheric plasma and powerful enough to accelerate and therefore heat the plasma from 6000 K to well over 1 MK over the short distance from the chromosphere and transition region to the corona. Coronal loops, Sunspots create this phenomenon from magnetic flux.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar flares “The high magnetic fields in the sunspot-producing active regions also give rise to explosions known as solar flares. When the twisted field lines cross and reconnect, energy explodes outward with a force exceeding that of millions of hydrogen bombs. Temperatures in the outer layer of the sun, known as the corona, typically fall around a few million kelvins. As solar flares push through the corona, they heat its gas to anywhere from 10 to 20 million K, occasionally reaching as high as a hundred million. According to NASA, the energy released in a solar flare “is the equivalent of millions of 100-megaton hydrogen bombs exploding at the same time.” Coronal mass ejections The magnetic field lines that twist up to form solar flares occasionally become so warped that, like rubber bands under tension, they snap and break, then reconnect at other points. The gaps that form no longer hold the sun’s plasma on its surface. Freed, the plasma explodes into space as a coronal mass ejection (CME). It takes several hours for the CME to detach itself from the sun, but once it does, it races away at speeds of up to 1,000 km (more than 7 million miles per hour). The cloud of hot plasma and charged particles may be up to 100 billion kilograms (220 billion pounds) in size. Credit Magnetic storms of the Sun.