Black Holes ? M87 the evidence..

Galaxies like to hang out together in groups, in our group at the heart is M87, a supergiant galaxy.

Messier 87 (also known as Virgo A or NGC 4486, and generally abbreviated to M87) is a supergiant elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo. One of the most massive galaxies in the local universe, it is notable for its large population of globular clusters—M87 contains about 12,000 compared to the 150-200 orbiting the Milky Way—and its jet of energetic plasma that originates at the core and extends outward at least 1,500 parsecs (4,900 light-years), travelling at relativistic speed. It is one of the brightest radio sources in the sky, and is a popular target for both amateur astronomy observations and professional astronomy study.

Once again when dealing with the wonders of our local supercluster we have annoying theoretical concepts hijacking the research.

“At the core of this galaxy is a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with an estimated (3.5 ± 0.8) × 109 times the mass of the Sun. This is one of the highest masses known for such an object.”

m87

“So gravity pulls on light just as on rocks. We also know that we can put rocks in orbit, can we put light in orbit? Yes! but we need a very heavy object whose radius is very small, for example, we need something as heavy as the sun but squashed to a radius of less than about 3km. Given such an object, light moving towards it in the right direction will, if it comes close enough land in an orbit around it. If you place yourself in the path of light as it orbits the object, you’d be able to see your back.
But we can go farther and imagine an object so massive and compact that if we turn on a laser beam on its surface gravity’s pull will bend it back towards the surface. Think what this means: since no light can leave this object it will appear perfectly black, this is a black hole. An object which comes sufficiently close to a black hole will also disappear into it (since nothing moves faster than light if an object traps light it will also trap everything else).

The effect of a black holes, like all gravitational effects, decreases with distance. This means that there will be a “boundary” surrounding the black hole such that anything crossing it will be unable to leave the region near the black hole; this boundary is called the black-hole horizon see Fig. 7.10 Anything crossing the horizon is permanently trapped. Black holes are prefect roach motels: once you check in (by crossing the horizon), you never check out.”

Taken from

http://physics.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node90.html

But we find instead of stars being sucked into this supermassive black hole as theory would suggest..

Talk about getting the cosmic boot! One of the largest known galaxies in the universe, Messier 87 (M87), appears to have hurled an entire star cluster in our direction.

“Jet of energetic plasma that originates at the core and extends outward”

Ejection from black holes ?

Plasma being ejected from m87
Plasma being ejected from m87

So ejection comes from a black hole in the center that is supposedly pulling everything in.

That doesn’t make sense.. Welcome to black holes, a waste of our time.

I thought black holes sucked everything in.

Where do black holes come from ?

While it can be said “. Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell  and Pierre-Simon Laplace” Is where the first conception of black holes came from.

However it is relativity and Einstein that really pushed black holes into the forefront of mainstream science.

”  He found a new way to describe gravity. It was not a force, as Sir Isaac Newton had proposed, but a consequence of a distortion in space and time, conceived together in his theory as ‘space-time’. According to Einstein, matter and energy exist on a background of space and time. Objects distort the fabric of space-time based on their mass- more massive objects have a greater effect.”

So the thing to remember here is that this is theory. It is not based on empirical science.

Yet the impact these mythical  constructs are diverting research into real events by fixing the game.

“While black holes, themselves, are invisible, their presence exerts a powerful gravitational force on nearby gas and stars, causing everything to orbit at tremendous speeds. As the matter nears the event horizon, it accelerates until it approaches the speed of light and in the process acquires tremendous energy. Some of this energy is converted into radiation.”

A black hole is in the middle of our galaxy. A Quasar has a black hole in it. A big star when it dies is said to have a black hole.  It continues..

Halton Arp ” No one has ever seen a black hole; they are theoretical objects. The basic idea behind a black hole – that gravity can become infinite and compress a large volume of matter to an infinitesimal point (or ‘singularity’) – is irrational and illogical; nothing finite can ever become infinitely large or small, for these are mathematical abstractions.”:

“Galaxies M87 and NGC 6605 are emitting jets of material and are supposed to have supermassive black holes at their centres. According to D.P., black-hole supporters thought the jets were fed by a doughnut-shaped dust cloud around the M87 black hole and an accretion disc of attracted matter around the NGC 6605 black hole, but observations have failed to find evidence of either.

David Pratt says it is significant that matter is nearly always seen moving away from galactic nuclei, instead of towards them as the black-hole theory requires. This is also true of our own galaxy, and the radiation coming from its centre does not match that expected to come from a black hole. Several scientists have concluded that the centres of active galaxies are regions of matter creation rather than matter destruction. D.P. refers to G. de Purucker’s remarks about laya centres, which energy can flow both into and out of. He adds that every point of space is in a sense a laya centre, and that every entity, every atom, every human, and every celestial body has a laya centre at its core, for every physical form is animated from within outwards.

Mainstream scientists tell us that black holes form by the gravitational collapse of extremely massive stars, and some speculate that large volumes of interstellar gas can collapse into supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. During this process, gravity allegedly becomes infinitely strong, crushing matter to an infinitesimal point of infinite density and infinite ‘spacetime curvature’. This ‘singularity’, as it is called, is surrounded by a gravitational field so intense that nothing entering a black hole’s boundary can ever escape, not even light. Theorists predict that black holes can emit extremely tiny amounts of heat radiation, so that a typical black hole will evaporate in about a million trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion years.

As pointed out in ‘Big bang, black holes, and common sense’, the existence of black holes as defined above can be rejected simply on the grounds of logic and common sense. In the real world, nothing finite can become infinite or infinitesimal; nor can the boundless universe originate from an infinitesimal point, as the big-bang theory claims. As for the notion of ‘curved space’, which Einstein invented to ‘explain’ gravity, several scientists, and also G. de Purucker, have dismissed it as a mathematical delusion. Inside a black hole, ‘spacetime’ supposedly becomes so distorted that space becomes time and time becomes space. Aard Bol is silent about all this – which is not surprising, as it’s unlikely that he has found a way to turn the finite into the infinite, or space into time!

Leaving aside the weird theories about what goes on inside a black hole, what evidence is there that such objects exist? Black holes can never be observed directly, so scientists look for indirect evidence of them: namely, their gravitational effects on matter in their vicinity, and radiation coming from their direct environment (attributed to material falling into them). However, as Fred Hoyle and other critically-minded astronomers have noted, the available evidence merely points to the existence of highly condensed aggregates of matter which produce very strong gravitational fields – but these objects generally appear to be undergoing explosive activity rather than swallowing things up.

The black-hole theory has great difficulty explaining why gas is universally seen moving radially outward from galactic nuclei. It insists that matter must first be attracted towards a hypothetical black hole from surrounding space, and some of it may then somehow get flung in the opposite direction. In the previous article, I mentioned several observations showing that the postulated disks and clouds of gas and dust surrounding ‘black holes’ are often missing; this implies that the gas or radiation speeding outwards originates within the central object itself – which would, by definition, be impossible if it were really a black hole. After space-telescope observations in 1995 failed to detect material around hypothetical black holes at the centre of many quasars, the astronomer heading the investigation called the discovery ‘a giant leap backward’; this major problem for the black-hole theory has still not been solved.”

Credit

http://davidpratt.info/bol.htm

Comets are they really snowballs ? The evidence says no..

Nowhere in this article is the comet referred to as ice, it has been said now that this comet is a space rock.

Many thanks to the Thunderbolts crew

Our electric star is connected to us through plasma

Thanks to the thunderbolts crew for their great work.

plasma

This is an awesome accomplishment. Cleo Loi, a 23-year-old undergrad student, “has discovered that giant, invisible, moving plasma tubes fill the skies above Earth.”

First she was met with disbelief. “Ms Loi told news.com.au that her research was initially dismissed as being based on imperfections in the telescope images. ‘They had never seen this type of thing before. No one had looked at the data in this way before,’ she said. ‘A lot of the people were pretty convinced is was some problem with the imaging, that it was nothing to get excited about.'”

The implications could be far-reaching. “Ms Loi said the drifting plasma tubes could distort astronomical data, especially satellite-based navigation systems. It may also mean we need to re-evaluate our thinking about how galaxies, stars and clouds of gas behave and what they look like.”

Cleo Loi is a student of the ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) and the School of Physics at the University of Sydney. She has been working on this research as a part of her undergraduate thesis and is the lead author of this award winning research paper which was published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. Cleo Loi et al has invented a three dimensional way to view the Earth’s magnetosphere.

Loi said: “For over 60 years, scientists believed these structures existed but by imaging them for the first time, we’ve provided visual evidence that they are really there.”

Basically, Sun is constantly emitting charged particles or ionized particles towards Earth. Scientists believe Earth is surrounded by complex magnetic field known as magnetosphere (that protects life on Earth from any damage). When these ionized particles approach Earth their path gets diverted due to which some of the particles may get deflected while some may be funneled towards the pole of Earth resulting in a spectacular array of light, due to the interaction between the magnetic fields and the eruption of gas from these charged particles, thus leading to a display known as ‘aurora’.

Earth’s protective magnetosphere further comprises of ionosphere and plasmasphere. The innermost being ionosphere and the layer above that is plasmasphere. Though not much is known about these complex structures and the research work is still under progress; however scientists believe that these are embedded with a plasma structures which are in the form of tubes and various other strange shapes.

The ionosphere does interfere with satellite navigation systems as well as it affects the images that are received by the radio telescopes hence a detailed study of this layer is a must.

By using the Murchinson Widefield Array (MWA), a radio telescope in the Western Australian desert, Loi probed these regions and ultimately landed on discovering the visual evidences of the 60 year old theory of tubular plasma structures drifting around the Earth.

Loi said: “The discovery of the structures is important because they cause unwanted signal distortions that could, as one example, affect our civilian and military satellite-based navigation systems. So we need to understand them.”

A forerunner of Square Kilometer Array (SKA), MWA consists of 128 antennae that are spread over a huge area of three kilometers which is almost 2 miles.

In her research study, Loi attempted to achieve a vision similar to binocular by splitting the western ends of the array from the eastern ends thus making it possible to get a three dimensional view of the magnetosphere.

Usually when the MWA is used for astronomical work, with a three kilometer baseline it cannot give the required parallax effect that is essential to get the in-depth view. However, during this research the situation was entirely different as the astronomers were looking close to Earth.

During her study, Loi was able to map a series of high and low density plasma tubes that connected the ionosphere and plasmasphere,  in addition these tubes were running parallel to the magnetic field. Says Loi: “We measured their position to be about 600 kilometres [373 miles] above the ground, in the upper ionosphere, and they appear to be continuing upwards into the plasmasphere. This is around where the neutral atmosphere ends, and we are transitioning to the plasma of outer space.”

Further it was seen that with time the tubes are moving slowly hence a changing interference effect has been experienced by the telescopes.

While speaking to IFLScience, Loi said that earlier researchers have been successful in limited probing into the ionosphere using Very Large Array, which is some other type of radio telescope; however applying parallax and getting a visual evidence is something totally new and has never been previously applied to the problem.

Loi said: “People theorized something like this from observations of a type of very low frequency electromagnetic wave. We can detect lightning from another hemisphere and people concluded there must be plasma tubes guiding the signal. It’s a very indirect conclusion, and no one had much idea what these tubes were like.”

For her breakthrough research, Cleo Loi has been awarded the 2015 Bok Prize of the Astronomical Society of Australia.

Loi has mentioned that it was amazing to visualize the giant plasma tubes using MWA’s enormous 30° field. Loi further envisages that the SKA is used in future to study the ionosphere and hopes that the publicity of her research would definitely be successful in bringing about this major change.

credit

News story regarding this discovery of Plasma tubes.

Milky way star filaments found, latest space news

New Herschel Images Reveal How Matter is Distributed Across Our Milky Way

May 29, 2015

Space

Image Reveals How Matter is Distributed Across Our Milky Way

This new image of filament G49 reveals how matter is distributed across our Milky Way galaxy.

New images of huge filamentary structures of gas and dust from the Herschel space observatory reveal how matter is distributed across our Milky Way galaxy. Long and flimsy threads emerge from a twisted mix of material, taking on complex shapes.

This image shows a filament called G49, which contains 80,000 suns’ worth of mass. This huge but slender structure of gas and dust extends about 280 light-years in length, while its diameter is only about 5 light-years across.

In this image, longer-wavelength light has been assigned visible colors. Light with wavelengths of 70 microns is blue; 160-micron light is green; and 350-micron light is red. Cooler gas and dust are seen in red and yellow, with temperatures as low as minus 421 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 252 degrees Celsius).

In the densest and coolest clumps, the seeds of new generations of stars are taking shape. A brighter clump of matter is visible at the left tip of the wispy thread.

This filament is about 18,000 light-years away. The image is oriented with northeast toward the left of the image and southwest toward the right.

Herschel is a European Space Agency mission, with science instruments provided by consortia of European institutes and with important participation by NASA. While the observatory stopped making science observations in April 2013, after running out of liquid coolant as expected, scientists continue to analyze its data. NASA’s Herschel Project Office is based at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. JPL contributed mission-enabling technology for two of Herschel’s three science instruments. The NASA Herschel Science Center, part of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, supports the U.S. astronomical community. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

Publication: Ke Wang, et al., “Large-scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms,” MNRAS (July 11, 2015) 450 (4): 4043-4049; doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv735

PDF Copy of the Study: Large scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

Source: NASA

Nasa Saucer craft lander, supersonic parachute test, shown live at..

This artist's concept shows the test vehicle for NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD)
This artist’s concept shows the test vehicle for NASA’s Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD), designed to test landing technologies for future Mars missions. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
› Full image and caption

Mission managers postponed tomorrow’s scheduled launch of a high-altitude balloon carrying NASA’s Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) test vehicle because of unfavorable ocean conditions. The wave height is not conducive for safe recovery operations. The next launch attempt is Wednesday, June 3, no earlier than 1:30 p.m. EDT (10:30 a.m. PDT/7:30 a.m. HST).

Since Orville Wright first took to the skies over Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, experimental flight tests have been a relatively singular affair, with aviators taking their untried machines into the sky in search of good data and a great hangar story. But nowadays, cutting-edge testing of air and space machines has become somewhat more accessible. This week offers up another opportunity to witness an important milestone in experimental flight tests. NASA’s Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project will beam back to Earth live imagery from a supersonic, edge-of-atmosphere test of braking technology for Mars.

First off — what will you see?

“You get to see all the same video I do, at the same time I do,” said Mark Adler, project manager for LDSD at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “This year’s test is centered on how our newly-designed supersonic parachute will perform. We think we have a great design ready for the challenge, but the proof is in the pudding and the pudding will be made live for everyone to see.”

So what exactly is that?

On launch day — currently slated for June 2, but dependent on weather conditions — the LDSD test vehicle will be carried aloft by a large weather balloon. NASA Television and JPL’s Ustream channel will carry live commentary on the launch beginning at 1 p.m. EDT (10 a.m. PDT/7 a.m. HST).

For more than two hours, the balloon will carry the test vehicle to an altitude of 120,000 feet (37,000 meters). The tracking cameras NASA has employed for this year’s test are expected to keep the balloon and test vehicle in their sights for about 30 minutes after launch. For this reason, at about 30 minutes after launch, the commentary will sign off temporarily.

Live video commentary is expected to return about 20 minutes before the LDSD test vehicle drops away from the balloon and the rocket-powered portion of the flight test begins. This second part of commentary could begin as soon as two hours after balloon launch or as late as about five hours after launch.

When the commentary resumes, viewers will see live, low-resolution images from high over the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Kauai, Hawaii. Four cameras aboard the test vehicle will provide the LDSD mission team with different perspectives on the test. Two of the cameras provide views of the rim of the test vehicle and will show the performance of the Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD). A third camera will show the rocket motor firing, with Earth’s horizon spinning in the background (the vehicle is spin-stabilized during the rocket flight), along with the deployment of the parachute’s lanyards. The fourth camera looks directly up and will show the deployment of the ballute and supersonic parachute.

“What we will be looking most closely for is to see what happens on that fourth camera, when at Mach 2.35 our supersonic parachute is deployed,” said Adler. “It may be hard to see because the transmitted video is low resolution, but we hope to be able to make it out.”

During last year’s flight, the test vehicle and the SIAD worked flawlessly. Its parachute, however — the largest supersonic parachute ever flown — did not perform as planned. Numerous improvements have been made to this year’s chute – which will be the primary focus of this month’s test.

The low-resolution imagery that is downlinked live and carried on NASA TV will be supplanted in the days after the test by ultra-high-resolution imagery from cameras carried aboard the test vehicle (see http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4604).

When and where do I tune in?

NASA commentary will be carried on NASA TV and on the Web at http://www.nasa.gov/nasatv andhttp://www.ustream.tv/nasajpl2. The test launch window for LDSD is from June 2 to June 12, and extends each day from approximately 1:30 p.m. to 3 p.m. EDT (10:30 to noon PDT / 7:30 to 9 a.m. HST). For updates on launch status, follow @NASA_Technology and @NASA on Twitter or visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/ldsd

On launch day, these same sources will provide updates on when commentary will resume with the drop and test flight of vehicle.

The LDSD crosscutting demonstration mission will test breakthrough technologies that will enable large payloads to be safely landed on the surface of Mars, and also will allow access to more of the planet’s surface by enabling landings at higher-altitude sites. As NASA plans ambitious robotic science missions to Mars, laying the groundwork for even more complex human expeditions to come, the spacecraft needed to land safely on the Red Planet’s surface will become larger and heavier in order to accommodate explorers’ extended stays on the Martian surface.

The LDSD test vehicle was shipped to the U.S. Navy’s Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) in Kauai, Hawaii, aboard a U.S. Air Force C-17 cargo plane.

The Space Technology Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington funds the LDSD mission, a cooperative effort led by JPL. The Technology Demonstration Mission program at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages LDSD. NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility on Wallops Island, Virginia, is coordinating support with PMRF and provides the balloon systems for the LDSD test.

For more information on the LDSD SIAD, ballute and parachute, see the 2015 LDSD Press Kit:

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/press_kits/ldsd2015.pdf

For more updates about the test flight and more information about the LDSD project, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/ldsd

Surprise pancake structure in Andromeda Galaxy upends galactic understanding

Surprise pancake structure in Andromeda Galaxy upends galactic understanding

Astronomers have been amazed to find a group of dwarf galaxies moving in unison in the vicinity of the Andromeda Galaxy.
RELATED TOPICS: DWARF GALAXIES
Satellites-of-Andromeda
This composite shows the alignment of the satellite galaxies of Andromeda in relation to the view that we see from Earth (the top left panel shows a true-color image of the center of the Andromeda Galaxy taken with the CFH Telescope). New distance measurements allow us to ascertain the 3-D positions of the satellite galaxies, which together with new velocity measurements, reveal their true nature as part of a gigantic rotating structure (side view: bottom left panel; front view: top right panel). // Credit: R. Ibata (PAndAS team)
Astronomers using the Canada-France-Hawaii and W. M. Keck Observatory telescopes on the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, have been amazed to find a group of dwarf galaxies moving in unison in the vicinity of the Andromeda Galaxy. The structure of these small galaxies lies in a plane, analogous to the planets of the solar system. Unexpectedly, they orbit the much larger Andromeda Galaxy en masse, presenting a serious challenge to our ideas for the formation and evolution of all galaxies.

While Persian astronomers were the first to catalog the Andromeda Galaxy, it’s been only in the past five years that scientists have studied in detail the most distant suburbs of the Andromeda Galaxy via the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS), undertaken with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and measured with the Keck Observatory, providing our first panoramic view of our closest large companion in the cosmos.

The study culminates many years of effort by an international team of scientists who have discovered a large number of the satellite galaxies, developed new techniques to measure their distances, and have used the Keck Observatory with colleagues to measure their radial velocities, or Doppler shifts — the speed of the galaxy relative to the Sun. While earlier work had hinted at the existence of this structure, the new study has demonstrated its existence to a high level of statistical confidence — 99.998 percent.

The study reveals almost 30 dwarf galaxies orbiting the larger Andromeda Galaxy in this regular, solar system-like plane. The astronomers’ expectations were that these smaller galaxies should be buzzing around randomly like bees around a hive.

“This was completely unexpected,” said Geraint Lewis from the University of Sydney. “The chance of this happening randomly is next to nothing.” The fact that astronomers now see that a majority of these little systems in fact contrive to map out an immensely large — approximately 1 million light-years across — but extremely flattened structure implies that this understanding is grossly incorrect. Either something about how these galaxies formed or subsequently evolved must have led them to trace out this peculiar coherent structure.

“We know of a number of galaxies that have experienced a collision, causing some of their stars to be expelled great distances, in sheets and tails. However, it’s unlikely that kind of event explains what we are observing,” said R. Michael Rich from the University of California, Los Angeles.

While dwarf galaxies are not massive, they are the most numerous galaxy type in the universe. Understanding this assemblage will undoubtedly shed new insight into the formation of galaxies at all masses.

For several decades, astronomers have used computer models to predict how dwarf galaxies should orbit large galaxies, and every time they found that dwarfs should be scattered randomly over the sky. Powered by supercomputers, these efforts have resulted in simulations of ever-increasing fidelity. None of these computer-created universes have generated dwarfs arranged in a revolving plane like that observed in Andromeda.

“It is very exciting for my work to reveal such a strange structure,” said Anthony Conn of Macquarie University, whose research proved key to this study. “It has left us scratching our heads as to what it means.”

There have been similar claims for an extensive plane of dwarf galaxies about our Milky Way Galaxy, with some claiming that the existence of such strange structures points to a failing in our understanding of the fundamental nature of the universe.

“We don’t yet know where this is pointing us” said Rodrigo Ibata of the Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory. “It flies in the face of our ideas about galaxy formation, but it surely is very exciting.”

Seeing Red by Halton Arp

seeingred A fantastic read for anyone interested in cosmology. A must

His work with quasars and red shift, is quite astounding. The clearly visible filaments attached between a quasar and it’s parent galaxy. Such a relief to see he disputes the big bang but sounds like it was quite taxing on his career, hence this book and the truths he has in them backed up with real evidence.